For, during and while

For and during

We use for + a period of time to say how long something goes on:

for two hours / for a week / for ages

  • We watched television for two hours last night.
  • Diane is going away for a week in September.
  • Where have you been? I’ve been waiting for ages.
  • Are you going away for the weekend?

We use during + noun to say when something happens (not how long):

during the film/ during our holiday/ during the night

  • I fell asleep during the film.
  • We met some really nice people during our holiday.
  • The ground is wet. It must have rained during the night.

With ‘time words’ (for example: the morning / the afternoon / the summer), you can usually say in or during:

  • It must have rained in the night, (or during the night)
  • I’ll phone you sometime during the afternoon, (or in the afternoon I

You cannot use during to say how long something goes on:

  • It rained for three days without stopping, (not during three days)

Compare during and for:

  • I fell asleep during the film.
    I was asleep for half an hour.

During and while

We use during + noun:

  • I fell asleep during the film.
  • We met a lot of interesting people

We use while + subject + verb:

  • I fell asleep while I was watching TV.
  • We met a lot of interesting people during our holiday, while we were on holiday.

Some more examples of while:

  • We saw Clare while we were waiting for the bus.
  • While you were out, there was a phone call for you.
  • Chris read a book while I watched television.

When you are talking about the future, use the present (not will) after while:

  • I’ll be in London next week. I hope to see Tom while I’m there.
    (not while I will be there)
  • What are you going to do while you are waiting? (not while you will be waiting)

List D

dependant or
The adjective (meaning reliant) is always
She is a widow with five DEPENDENT
Iamabsolutely DEPENDENT on a
The noun (meaning someone who is
dependent) has traditionally been spelt
-ant. However, the American practice of
writing either -ant or -ent for the noun
has now spread here. Either spelling is
now considered correct for the noun but
be aware that some conservative readers
would consider this slipshod.
She has five DEPENDANTS/
device/devise DEVICE is the noun.
A padlock is an intriguing DEVICE.
DEVISE is the verb.
Try to DEVISE a simple burglar alarm.
different from/to/than ‘Different from’ and ‘different to’ are now
both considered acceptable forms.
My tastes are DIFFERENT FROM yours.
My tastes are DIFFERENT TO yours.
Conservative users would, however, much
prefer the preposition ‘from’ and this is
widely used in formal contexts.
‘Different than’ is acceptable in
American English but is not yet fully
acceptable in British English.
dining or dinning? dine + ing = dining (as in dining room)
din + ing = dinning (noise dinning in
discover or invent? You DISCOVER something that has been
there all the time unknown to you (e.g. a
You INVENT something if you create it
for the first time (e.g. a time machine).
displace or misplace? To displace is to move someone or
something from its usual place:
To misplace something is to put it in the
wrong place (and possibly forget where it
draft or draught? A DRAFT is a first or subsequent attempt
at a piece of written work before it is
A DRAUGHT is a current of cool air in a
One also refers to a DRAUGHT of ale, a
game of DRAUGHTS and a boat having a
shallow DRAUGHT.
drawers or draws? DRAWS is a verb.
She DRAWS very well for a young child.
DRAWERS is a noun.
The DRAWERS of the sideboard are very
dual or duel? DUAL means two (e.g. DUAL controls,
DUAL carriageway).
DUEL means fight or contest.
due to/owing to Strictly speaking, ‘due to’ should refer to
His absence was DUE TO sickness. (noun)
The delay was DUE TO leaves on the
line. (noun)
‘Owing to’, strictly speaking, should refer
to a verb:
The march was cancelled OWING TO the
storm. (verb)
OWING TO an earlier injury, he limped
badly. (verb)
However, in recent years, the use of ‘due
to’ where traditionally ‘owing to’ would
be required has become widespread.
Nevertheless, some careful writers
continue to preserve the distinction and
you may wish to do so too in a formal
dyeing or dying? DYEING comes from the verb to dye.
She was DYEING all her vests green.
DYING comes from the verb to die.
She cursed him with her DYING breath.

do and make

These words are very similar but there are some differneces

1. We use do when we do not say exactly what activity we are talking about-
for example with something, nothing, anything, everything,what.

  • Do something! I like doing nothing
  • What shall we do? Then he did a very strange thing

2. We use do when we talk about work and in the structure do -ing

  • I’m not going to do any work today. I’m going to do some reading.
  • I dislike doing housework. I hate doing the cooking and shopping.
  • Would you like to do my job.

3. We often use make to talk about constructing building, building, creating etc

  • I’ve just made a cake. Let’s make a plan.
  • My father and I once made a boat.

4, Learn these expressions

  • do good/ harm/ business/ one’s best/ a favour
  • make an offer/ arrangements/ suggestion/ a decision/
    an attempt/ an effort/ an excuse/ an exception/ a mistake/
    a noise/ a journey/ a phone call/ money/ a profit/ love/ peace/
    war/ a bed
  • …….

Although / though / even though, In spite of / despite

After although we use a subject + verb:’

  • Although it rained a lot, we enjoyed our holiday.
  • I didn’t get the job although I had the necessary qualifications.

Compare the meaning of although and because:

  • We went out although it was raining.
  • We didn’t go out because it was raining.

After in spite of or despite, we use a noun, a pronoun (this/that/what etc.) or -ing:

  • In spite of the rain, we enjoyed our holiday.
  • I didn’t get the job in spite of having the necessary qualifications.
  • She wasn’t well, but in spite of this she went to work.
  • In spite of what I said yesterday, I still love you.

Despite is the same as in spite of. We say in spite of, but despite [without of):

  • She wasn’t well, but despite this she went to work.(not despite of this)

You can say in spite of the fact (that) … and despite the fact (that) … :

  • I didn’t get the job in spite of the fact (that) I had the necessary qualifications.
    I didn’t get the job despite the fact (that) I had the necessary qualifications.

Compare in spite of and because of:

  • We went out in spite of the rain, (or … despite the rain.)
  • We didn’t go out because of the rain.

Compare although and in spite of / despite:

  • Although the traffic was bad,/In spite of the traffic, we arrived on time,
    In spite of the traffic was bad)
  • I couldn’t sleep, although I was very tired./despite being very tired.
    despite I was tired)

Sometimes we use though instead of although:

  • I didn’t get the job though I had the necessary qualifications.

In spoken English we often use though at the end of a sentence:

  • The house isn’t very nice. I like the garden though. (= but I like the garden)
  • I see them every day. I’ve never spoken to them though. (= but I’ve never spoken to them)

Even though (but not ‘even’ alone) is a stronger form of although:

  • Even though I was really tired, I couldn’t sleep, (not Even I was really tired …)

during and for

During says when something happens
For says how long it takes


  • My father was in hospital during the summer
  • My father was in hospital for six weeks (not during six weeks)
  • It’s rained during the night for two or three hours
  • I’ll call in and see you for a few minutes during the afternoon