Conjunctions and connecting words

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Basic conjunctions

Conjunctions join two parts of a sentence and help to show the connection between the two parts of the sentence.

and tells you more

  • We went home and went straight to bed.

but makes a contrast

  • They are rich but they aren’t happy.

because answers the question why?

  • We went home because we were tired.

so tells you the result

  • We went home early, so we missed the end of the concert.

when answers the question when?

  • We went home when Jane wanted to.

before, after answers the question what happened first?

  • We went home before the concert ended.
  • We went home after Max Jones had sung his first song.

although, though tells you something surprising

  • We went home although / though we did not really want to.

if makes a condition

  • We will go home if we are tired.

Coordinating Conjunctions

  • for
  • and
  • nor
  • but
  • or
  • yet

Subordinating Conjunctions

  • A: after, although, as, as if, as long as, as much as, as soon as, as though
  • B: because, before, by the time
  • E: even if, even though
  • I: if, in order that, in case
  • L: lest
  • O: once, only if
  • P: provided that
  • S: since, so that
  • T: than, that, though, till
  • U: unless, until
  • W: when, whenever, where, wherever, while
TIMECAUSE + EFFECTOPPOSITIONCONDITION
afterbecausealthoughif
beforesincethoughunless
whennow thateven thoughonly if
whileaswhereaswhether or not
sincein order thatwhileeven if
untilsoin case (that)

Correlative Conjunctions

  • both… and
  • either… or
  • neither… nor
  • not only… but also
  • whether… or

A: after, although, as, as if, as long as, as much as, as soon as, as though

B: because, before, by the time

E: even if, even though

I: if, in order that, in case

L: lest

O: once, only if

P: provided that

S: since, so that

T: than, that, though, till

U: unless, until

W: when, whenever, where, wherever, while

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